January 5 - The Soviet Union recognizes the new pro-Soviet government of Poland.
January 7 - British General Bernard Montgomery holds a press conference in which he
claims credit for victory in the Battle of the Bulge.
January 12 - World War II: The Soviets begin a very large offensive in Eastern Europe
against the Nazis.
January 13 - Soviet patrol arrests Raoul Wallenberg in Hungary.
January 16 - Adolf Hitler moves into his underground bunker, the so-called Führerbunker.
January 17 - World War II: Soviets occupy Warsaw.
January 17 - Holocaust: Nazis begin to evacuate from Auschwitz concentration camp.
January 27 - The Red Army arrives at Auschwitz and Birkenau in Poland and find the
Nazi concentration camp where 1.1-1.5 million people were murdered.
January 28 - World War II: Supplies begin to reach China over the newly reopened
January 30 - The Wilhelm Gustloff with more 10,000 refugees from Gotenhafen in the
Gdansk Bay sunk with three torpedoes from the Soviet submarine S-13. More 9,300
drowned in the Baltic Sea.
January 31 - Eddie Slovik is executed, the first American soldier since the Civil War
to be executed for desertion.
February 2 - World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister
Winston Churchill leave to meet with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin at the Yalta Conference.
February 3 - World War II: Russia agrees to enter the Pacific Theatre conflict against Japan.
February 4 - World War II: President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister of the United
Kingdom Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin begin the Yalta Conference
(ends February 11).
February 7 - World War II: General Douglas MacArthur returns to Manila.
February 8 - World War II: United States fire bombs Dresden, Germany killing 35,000
February 10 - World War II: The Steuben sunk by the Soviet submarine S-13.
February 13 - World War II: Soviet Union forces capture Budapest, Hungary
from the Nazis.
February 13 - World War II: The British Air Force bombs Dresden, Germany.
February 14 - Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru join the United Nations.
February 16 - World War II: American forces land on Corregidor island in the Philippines.
February 16 - American forces recapture the Bataan Peninsula.
February 19 - World War II: Battle of Iwo Jima - about 30,000 United States Marines
landed on Iwo Jima starting the battle.
February 23 - World War II: Following the American victory at the Battle of Iwo Jima, a
group of United States Marines reach the top of Mount Surabachi on the island and are
photographed raising the American flag. The photo will later win a Pulitzer Prize.
February 23 - World War II: The capital of the Philippines, Manila, is liberated by
February 24 - Egyptian Premier Ahmed Maher Pasha is killed in Parliament after
reading a decree.
March 1 - Jesse Holman Jones starts his term of office as U.S. Secretary of Commerce,
serving under President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
March 3 - World War II: Previously neutral Finland declares war on the Axis powers.
March 6 - Communist-led government formed in Romania.
March 7 - World War II: American troops seize the bridge over the Rhine River at
Remagen, Germany and begin to cross.
March 8 - Josip Broz Tito forms a government in Yugoslavia.
March 9 - March 10 - World War II: American B-29 bombers attack Japan with
incendiary bombs. Tokyo is fire-bombed killing 100,000 citizens.
March 16 - World War II: The Battle of Iwo Jima ends but small pockets of Japanese
March 18 - World War II: 1,250 American bombers attack Berlin..
March 19 - World War II: Adolf Hitler orders that all industries, military installations,
shops, transportation facilities and communications facilities in Germany be destroyed.
March 19 - Off the coast of Japan, bombers hit the aircraft carrier USS Franklin, killing
800 of her crew and crippling the ship.
March 21 - World War II: British troops liberate Mandalay, Burma.
March 22 - The Arab League was formed with the adoption of a charter in Cairo, Egypt.
March 30 - World War II: Soviet Union forces invade Austria and take Vienna.
From February 14, 1936, to March 1, 1945, AG Weser launched a total of 162 U-boats.
April 1 - World War II: United States troops land on Okinawa in the last campaign of
the war. The Battle of Okinawa starts.
April 4 - World War II: American troops liberate Ohrdruf death camp in Germany.
April 7 - World War II: The Japanese battleship Yamato is sunk 200 miles north of
Okinawa while in-route to a suicide mission.
April 10 - The Allied Forces liberated their first Nazi concentration camp, Buchenwald.
April 12 - United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1933-1945) dies in
office; Vice President Harry S. Truman (1945-1953) takes the Oath of Office.
April 25 - Founding negotiations of United Nations in San Francisco.
April 25 - World War II: United States and Russian troops link up at the Elbe River,
cutting Germany in two.
April 28 - Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and his mistress, Clara Petacci, are hanged
upside down by Italian partisans as they attempt to flee the country.
April 30 - Adolf Hitler and his wife of one day, Eva Braun, commit suicide as Soviet
troops approach Berlin.
May 1 - Joseph Goebbels and his wife commit suicide after killing their 6 children.
May 2 - World War II: The Soviet Union announces the fall of Berlin. Soviet soldiers
hoist the red flag over the Reichstag building.
May 2 - World War II: Troops of Yugoslav 4th Army together with Slovene 9th Corpus
NOV liberate Trieste.
May 3 - World War II: Sinking of the floating-jails Cap Arcona, Thielbek and
Deutschland by the RAF in the Lübeck Bay.
May 3 - Rocket scientist Wernher von Braun and 120 members of his team surrender
to US forces. They later help start the US space program.
May 4 - World War II: Liberation of the concentration camp Neuengamme near
Hamburg by the British army.
May 4 - World War II: Reddition of the North Germany army by Marshal Bernard Montgomery.
May 5 - Ezra Pound, poet and author, is arrested by American soldiers in Italy for treason.
May 5 - World War II: US armored unit liberates prisoners of Mauthausen concentration
camp - including Simon Wiesenthal.
May 5 - World War II: Canadian soldiers liberate the city of Amsterdam from
May 6 - World War II: Axis Sally delivers her last propaganda broadcast to Allied
troops (first was on December 11, 1941).
May 7 - World War II: General Alfred Jodl signs unconditional surrender terms at
Reims, France, ending Germany's participation in the war. The document will take
effect the next day.
May 8 - World War II: V-E Day (Victory in Europe, as Nazi Germany surrenders)
commemorates the end of World War II in Europe.
May 8 - World War II: British 8th Army together with Slovene partisan troops and
motorized detachment of Yugoslav 4th Army arrives to Carinthia and Klagenfurt.
May 9 - World War II: Hermann Göring is captured by the United States Army; Norway
arrests Vidkun Quisling; Soviet Union marks V-E Day.
May 9 - World War II: General Alexander Löhr Commander of German Army Group
E near Topolica, Slovenia, signs capitulation of German occupation troops.
May 15 - the last battle of WWII at Poljana near Slovenj Gradec, Slovenia.
May 23 - Heinrich Himmler, the head of the Nazi Gestapo, commits suicide in British custody.
May 25 - In Atlantic, ships can finally keep their lights lit. Szilard begs Harry S. Truman
not to use the bom.
May 28 - William Joyce, known as "Lord Haw-Haw" is captured. He is later charged with
high treason in London for his English-language wartime broadcasts on German
radio. He is hanged in January of 1946.
June 1 - British take over Lebanon and Syria.
June 6 - King Haakon VII of Norway returns to Norway.
June 11 - William Lyon Mackenzie King is reelected as Canadian prime minister.
Franck Committee recommends against a surprise nuclear bombing of Japan.
June 21 - World War II: The Battle of Okinawa ends.
June 24 - World War II: Victory parade in Red Square.
June 25 - Seán T. O'Kelly is elected the second President of Ireland.
June 26 - United Nations charter signed.
July 1 - World War II: Germany is divided between Allied occupation forces.
July 5 - World War II: Liberation of the Philippines declared.
July 8 - World War II: Harry S. Truman informed that Japan will talk peace if she
can keep the Emperor.
July 9 - A forest fire breaks out in the Tillamook Burn, the third fire in that area since 1933.
July 16 - Nuclear testing: The Trinity Test, the first test of an atomic bomb, using 6 kilograms
of plutonium, succeeds in detonating, unleashing an explosion equivalent to that
of 20 kilotons of TNT.
July 17 - World War II: Potsdam Conference - At Potsdam, the three main Allied
leaders begin their final summit of the war. The meeting will end on August 2.
July 21 - World War II: Harry S. Truman approves order for atomic bombs to be used.
July 23 - World War II: French marshall Philippe Pétain, who headed the Vichy
government during World War II goes on trial, charged with treason.
July 26 - Winston Churchill resigns as Britain's prime minister after his Conservative
Party is soundly defeated by the Labour Party. Clement Attlee becomes the new
prime minister. Potsdam Declaration demands Japan's unconditional surrender;
Article 12 permitting Japan to retain the Emperor had been deleted by Truman.
July 28 - A US bomber accidentally crashes into the Empire State Building, killing 14 people.
July 28 - World War II: Japan rejects Potsdam Declaration.
July 29 - The BBC Light Programme radio station was launched, aimed at mainstream
light entertainment and music.
July 30 - World War II: The USS Indianapolis is hit and sunk by an I-58 Japanese submarine.
Some 900 survivors jump into the sea and are adrift for 4 days. Nearly 600 die before
help arrives. Captain Charles Butler MacVey III is later court-martialed.
July 31 - World War II: Pierre Laval, fugitive former leader of Vichy France,
surrenders to Allied soldiers in Austria.
August 6 - World War II: United States drop the atomic bomb (Little Boy) on
Hiroshima, killing 80,000 citizens immediately.
August 8 - The United Nations Charter is ratified by the United States, and that nation
becomes the first to join the new international organization. Soviets declare war on Japan.
August 9 - World War II: United States detonate an atomic bomb nicknamed "Fat Man"
over the city of Nagasaki, Japan at 11:02 AM (local time) with an equivalent force
of 22,000 tons of TNT. An estimated 60,000-80,000 are killed and more 60,000 injured.
Soviet Union begins its offensive against Japan in Manchuria.
August 10 - World War II: US drops warning leaflets on Nagasaki.
August 13 - Zionist World Congress approaches British government to talk
about founding of Israel.
August 15 - World War II: Imperial Japan surrenders, but retains the Emperor. The
United States called this day V-J Day (Victory in Japan). This ends the period of
Japanese expansionism and begins the period of Occupied Japan..
August 17 - Indonesian nationalists declare independence from the Netherlands.
Achmad Sukarno becomes president.
August 19 - Vietnam War: Viet Minh led by Ho Chi Minh take power in Hanoi, Vietnam.
End of August - Chinese Civil War: Mao Zedong and Chiang Kai-shek meet in
Chongqing to discuss an end to hostilities between the Communists and the Nationalists.
September 2 - World War II ends: The final official surrender of Japan was accepted
by General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral Chester Nimitz from a delegation led by
Mamoru Shigemitsu, aboard the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay. But in Japan
August 14 is well recognized as the day the Pacific War ended.
September 2 - Ho Chi Minh promulgates the Vietnamese Declaration of
Independence, and unity from the north to the south.
September 4 - World War II: Japanese forces surrender on Wake Island after hearing
word of their nation's surrender.
September 5 - Iva Toguri D'Aquino, a Japanese-American suspected of
being wartime radio propagandist "Tokyo Rose," is arrested in Yokohama.
September 8 - US troops occupy southern Korea, Russians occupy the north.
This arrangement proves to be the beginning of a divided Korea.
September 8 - Hideki Tojo, Japanese prime minister during most of World War II,
attempts suicide to avoid facing a war crimes tribunal.
September 20 - Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru demand that British
troops leave India.
October 10 - Russian code clerk Igor Gouzenko defects to Canada. He helps
the West gain an understanding of Soviet spy rings in North America.
October 15 - World War II: Former premier of Vichy France, Pierre Laval, is
executed by firing squad for treason.
October 17 - Colonel Juan Peron stages a coup d'etat, becoming ruler of Argentina.
October 18 - The first German war crimes trial begins in Nuremberg.
October 21 - Women's suffrage: Women are allowed to vote in France for the first time.
October 23 - Jackie Robinson signs a contract with the Montreal Royals.
October 24 - United Nations founded.
October 27 - Indonesian separatists riot and fight Dutch and British security forces.
October 29 - Getulio Vargas, president of Brazil, resigns.
October 29 - At Gimbels Department Store in New York City the first ballpoint pens
go on sale (price: $12.50 each).
November 1 - John H. Johnson publishes the first issue of Ebony Magazine.
November 13 - Charles de Gaulle is elected president of France.
November 15 - Harry S. Truman, Clement Attlee, and Mackenzie King call for
a UN Atomic Energy Commission.
November 16 - Cold War: The United States controversially imports 88 German
scientists to help in the production of rocket technology.
November 20 - Nuremberg Trials begin: Trials against 24 Nazi war criminals of World
War II start at the Nuremberg Palace of Justice.
November 29 - The Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia is declared (this day
was celebrated as Republic Day until 1990s). Marshal Tito is named president.
November - Assembly of the world's first general purpose electronic computer,
the Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer (ENIAC), is
completed. It covers 1800 feet of floor space. The first set of calculations is
run on the computer.
December 4 - By a vote of 65 to 7, the United States Senate approves United
States participation in the United Nations (the UN was established on October 24, 1945).
December 20 - Gen. George S. Patton dies in a car accident at the age of 60.
December 27 - Twenty-eight nations sign an agreement creating the World Bank.
December 27 - Terror strikes against British military bases in Palestine.Unknown date
Foundation of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Poland has two rival governments.
Discovery of Nag Hammadi scriptures.
Dutch painter Han van Meegeren is arrested for collaboration with Nazis but the
paintings he had sold to Hermann Göring are found to be fakes.
in Guatemala and Japan.
Saskatchewan Government Insurance, the first state-owned automobile insurance
company in North America, is created.
Denmark recognizes independent Iceland.Ongoing events
Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945).Year in topic
1945 in film
The Lost Weekend. Winner of Academy Awards for Best Picture; Ray Milland, Best
Actor; Billy Wilder, Best Director, Best Screenplay.
Mildred Pierce Winner of Academy Award for Joan Crawford, Best Actress.
Alfred Hitchcock's Spellbound, starring Ingrid Bergman and Gregory Peck.
With Rossellini's Roma Citt`a aperta, Italian neorealist cinema begins.
Paramount Studios releases theatrical short cartoon titled "The Friendly Ghost",
featuring ghost named Casper.
Marcel Carné and Jacques Prévert's The Children of Paradise (Les Enfants du Paradis)
is released following the liberation of France.
1945 in music
Jazz pianist Oscar Peterson, makes his first record for Victor
Hit songs of 1945:
"On the Atchison, Topeka, and the Santa Fe" - Johnny Mercer
"You Belong to
My Heart" - Bing Crosby and Xavier Cugat Orch.
"Rum and Coca-Cola" - The Andrews Sisters.
"It Might as Well be Spring" - Dick Haymes.
"My Dreams are Getting Better All the Time" - Doris Day and Les Brown.
Bebop begins to emerge as popular style of jazz to contrast music of the big bands.
Development of bebop is attributed in large part to trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie and alto
saxophonist Charlie Parker.
1945 in sports
Toronto Maple Leafs win Stanley Cup.
Detroit Tigers win World Series.Science and Technology
Arthur C. Clarke puts forward idea of a communications satellite in a Wireless World
At Mayo Clinic, streptomycin first used to treat tuberculosis
accidentally discovers that microwaves can heat food. Invention of microwave oven follows.
Grand Rapids, Michigan, and Newburgh, New York become the first cities to add
fluoride to drinking water.
The first nuclear reactor outside of the U.S. is built in Chalk River, Ontario, Canada.
High-altitude west-to-east winds across Pacific, discovered by Japanese in 1942
and by Americans in 1944, are dubbed "jet stream".
Salvador Edward Luria and Alfred Day Hershey independently recognize that
viruses undergo mutations.
Herbicide 2,4-D is introduced. Later used as a component of Agent Orange.
Team led by Charles DuBois Coryell discovers element 61, the only one still
missing between 1 and 96 on Periodic Table. New element is called promethium.Births
January 3 - Stephen Stills
(Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young), singer, songwriter.
January 3 - Victoria Principal
January 10 - Rod Stewart
January 19 - Maria Jespen
January 26 - Jacqueline du Pré
, cello player (d. 1987).
January 27 - Nick Mason
, musician of Pink Floyd.
January 28 - Marthe Keller
January 29 - Tom Selleck
, actor (Magnum, P.I.).
January 30 - Michael Dorris
, author (d. 1997).
February 3 - Bob Griese
, Football Hall of Famer.
February 5 - Charlotte Rampling
February 6 - Bob Marley
, Jamaican roots rock reggae singer and musician (d. 1981).
February 7 - Pete Postlethwaite
February 9 - Mia Farrow
February 14 - Prince Hans
-Adam II of Liechtenstein.
February 17 - Brenda Fricker
February 24 - Johanna Cornelia van den Houten
February 24 - Barry Bostwick
February 28 - Bubba Smith
, Football Hall of Famer.
March 1 - Dirk Benedict
, movie and television actor, perhaps best known for playing
the character of "Face" in the television series The A-Team.
March 7 - John Heard
March 8 - Micky Dolenz
, actor, director, musica ("The Monkees").
March 8 - Anselm Kiefer
March 12 - Liesbeth van den Houten
March 19 - Cem Karaca
, Turkish rock musician.
March 22 - Paul Schockemöhle
March 29 - Walt Frazier
, basketball player.
March 30 - Eric Clapton
, blues guitarist.
April 2 - Linda Hunt
April 4 - Daniel Cohn-Bendit
, political activist.
April 4 - Craig T. Nelson
, actor (Coach, The District).
April 9 - Wim van den Houten
April 9 - Peter Gammons
, baseball sportswriter, journalist.
April 10 - Abraham Gerardus (Bram) Temminck
April 27 - August Wilson
May 4 - Narasinham Ram
May 6 - Bob Seger
, rock music singer.
May 6 - Jimmie Dale Gilmore
May 8 - Keith Jarrett
, jazz musician.
May 13 - Magic Dick
, musician ("The J. Geils Band").
May 15 - Duarte Pio
, Duke of Braganza presumptive heir to Portuguese crown.
May 19 - Pete Townshend
, guitarist, lyricist.
May 21 - Ernst Messerschmid
, physicist and astronaut.
May 28 - John Fogerty
May 31 - Rainer Werner Fassbinder
June 6 - Johannes Meijer
June 15- Her Royal Highness Princess Michael
June 17 - Art Bell
, radio talk show host.
June 17 - Eddy Merckx
, Belgian cycling champion.
June 17 - Anupam Kher
, actor, India.
June 18 - Regina Johanna Tuinder
June 19 - Aung San Suu Kyi
, Myanmar poet, politician and Nobel peace laureate.
June 25 - Carly Simon
, singer, songwriter.
June 30 - Adriaan Gerbrand Johan van den Houten
July 7 - Michael Ancram
(Michael Kerr, Earl of Ancram), British politician.
July 8 - Micheline Calmy-Rey
, member of the Swiss Federal Council.
July 15 - Jürgen Möllemann
, German politician (d. 2003).
July 22 - Maria Nellie Elisabeth van den Houten
July 28 - Jim Davis
August 9 - Posy Simmonds
August 14 - Steve Martin
, actor and comedian.
August 18 - Jacoba Elisabeth van den Houten
August 31 - Itzhak Perlman
August 31 - Van Morrison
September 3 - Aldo Moro
, Italian politician.
September 8 - Jose Feliciano
October 12 - Aurore Clément
, French actress.
October 15 - Jim Palmer
, Baseball Hall of Famer.
October 25 - David Schramm
October 27 - Luís Inácio Lula da Silva
, Brazilian President.
October 30 - Henry Winkler
, actor (Happy Days).
November 3 - J. D. Souther
, country rock musician.
November 5 - Jacques Lanctôt
, FLQ terrorist.
November 12 - Neil Young
, (Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young), singer, songwriter.
November 26 - Daniel Davis
, actor (The Nanny).
December 2 - Salomon van den Houten
December 15 - Willem Gerrit van den Houten
January 3 - Edgar Cayce
, psychic, "exhaustion".
January 5 - Jozua Quaak
January 18 - Christoffel Willem Bruggeman
January 22 - Else Lasker-Schuler
January 31 - Eddie Slovik
, American soldier.
February 5 - Lilian Rolfe
, SOE agent executed by the Nazis.
February 5 - Violette Szabo
, SOE agent executed by the Nazis.
February 5 - Denise Bloch
, SOE agent executed by the Nazis.
February 11 - Al Dubin
, Swiss songwriter.
February 11 - J. S. H. Lokerman
, Dutch resistance fighter.
February 17 - Gabrielle Weidner
, Belgian heroine of World War II.
February 21 - Eric Liddell
, Scottish runner.
February 24 - Cornelis Dales
March - Anne Frank
, at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, typhus.
March 1 - Umenosuke Bessho
, Japanese writer (b. 1871).
March 2 - Emily Carr
March 6 - Cornelis van den Houten
March 11 - Adriaantje Cornelia de Fouw
March 18 - William Grover-Williams
, Grand Prix motor racing driver/war hero.
March 19 - Friedrich Fromm
, Nazi official.
March 23 - Elisabeth de Rothschild
, executed by the Nazis.
March 26 - David Lloyd George
, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
March 30 - Elise Rivet
, Roman Catholic nun and war hero.
April 9 - Wilhelm Canaris
, head of the German Abwehr, hanged for treason.
April 9 - Dietrich Bonhoeffer
, theologian in Nazi Germany.
April 12 - Cornelis van den Houten
April 12 - United States President Franklin Delano Roosevelt
, massive stroke.
April 18 - Ernie Pyle
, American journalist, sniper fire.
April 28 - Benito Mussolini
, Italian dictator, hanged.
April 30 - Adolf Hitler
, German dictator and Nazi party leader, suicide.
May 1 - Cecily Lefort
, SOE agent, WW II heroine, executed by the Nazis.
May 1 - Joseph Goebbels
, Nazi propagandist, suicide.
May 15 - Charles Williams
, British author.
May 23 - Heinrich Himmler
, head of the Nazi Gestapo, suicide.
July 5 - John Curtin
, fourteenth Prime Minister of Australia.
August 2 - Pietro Mascagni
, Italian composer.
August 9 - Harry Hillman
, American athlete.
August 10 - Robert Goddard
, American rocket scientist.
August 14 - Marinus Franciscus van den Houten
August 20 - Dimmen Soetemam
August 27 - Gerdina Adriana van den Houten
August 31 - Stefan Banach
, Polish mathematician.
September 12 - Jan Adrianus Padmos
September 15 - Anton Webern
, Austrian composer.
September 24 - Johannes Hans Geiger
, inventor of the Geiger counter.
September 26 - Béla Bartók
, aged 64, Hungarian composer.
October 13 - Milton Hershey
, chocolate tycoon.
October 15 - Pierre Laval
, former Vichy French premier, firing squad.
October 19 - N.C. Wyeth
October 24 - Vidkun Quisling
, Norwegian politician, famous traitor, executed.
November 3 - Cornelis Anthonie Stomps
November 11 - Jerome Kern
November 21 - Robert Benchley
, The New Yorker, humorist, theatre critic, actor.
December 4 - Thomas Hunt Morgan
December 20 - General George S. Patton
, car accident.
December 28 - Theodore Dreiser
, author.Leonard Troast
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