January 8 - Borax is discovered (John Veatch).
January 29 - Queen Victoria institutes the Victoria Cross.
February 18 - The American Party (Know-Nothings) convene in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
to nominate their first Presidential candidate, former President Millard Fillmore.
March 30 - The Treaty of Paris (1856) is signed, ending the Crimean War.
April 7 - Foundation of Nelson College, Nelson, New Zealand.
May 21 - Lawrence, Kansas is captured and burned by pro-slavery forces.
May 22 - Congressman Preston Brooks of South Carolina beats Senator Charles Sumner
with a cane in the hall of the United States Senate for a speech Sumner had made attacking
Southerners who sympathized with the pro-slavery violence in Kansas ("Bleeding Kansas").
Sumner was unable to return to duty for three years while he recovered. Brooks became a
hero across the South.
July 31 - Christchurch, New Zealand chartered as a city.
November 17 - American Old West: On the Sonoita River in present-day southern Arizona,
the United States Army establishes Fort Buchanan in order to help control new land
acquired in the Gadsden Purchase.
Gregor Mendel starts his research on genetics.
End of the Crimean war.
November - James Buchanan
defeats John C. Fremont in the U.S. presidential election.
National Portrait Gallery in London opened.Births
January 5 - Margrieta Snoek
January 11 - Christian Sinding
, composer (+ 1941).
January 12 - John Singer Sargent
, artist (+ 1925).
January 20 - Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch
, women's rights activist ( 1940).
February 2 - Jan van den Houten
February 14 - Frank Harris
, author and editor.
February 24 - Johanna van den Houten
February 29 - Josina van den Houten
March 3 - Jacob van den Houten
March 9 - Teunis Johannes Cornelis van den Houten
March 9 - Edie Foy
, singer, dancer, vaudeville performer (+ 1928).
March 20 - Frederick Winslow Taylor
, inventor, efficiency expert.
April 5 - Booker T. Washington
, African-American educator (+ 1915).
April 12 - William Martin Conway
, British art critic and mountaineer (+ 1937).
April 15 - Peter Theodor Barmes
April 20 - Lena Soeteman
April 25 - Johanna Verschoor
May 6 - Sigmund Freud
, Austrian psychiatrist, founder of psychoanalysis.
May 6 - Robert Peary
, explorer (+ 1920).
May 15 - L. Frank Baum
, author (+ 1919).
July 2 - Bal Gangadhar Tilak
, Indian political activist (+ 1920).
July 10 - Nikola Tesla
, inventor (+ 1943).
July 26 - George Bernard Shaw
, writer (+ 1950).
August 13 - Alfred Deakin
, second Prime Minister of Australia (+ 1919).
September 14 - Maria Catherine Elisabeth Kessen
September 18 - Jacoba Munters
September 18 - Wilhelm von Gloeden
, photographer (+ 1931).
October 2 - Naboth Cornelis van Dijl
October 24 - Stoffel van den Houten
November 24 - Bat Masterson
, "Wild West" legend (+ 1921).
December 14 - Janna Boogerd (Boogert)
December 25 - Hans von Bartels
, German painter.
December 28 - Jacob (Jakob) Quant
February 17 - Heinrich Heine
March 16 - Maria Kalle
April 14 - Josias van den Houten
May 5 - Geertrui(j) Overdijke
May 20 - Teunis Johannes Cornelis van den Houten
July 9 - Amedeo Avogadro
August 5 - Jacob van den Houten
August 29 - Leendert Quant
August 30 - Gilbert Abbott a Beckett
October 26 - Willemptje van Eesteren
October 28 - Johannes van den Houten
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