Zie: Wikipedia.
Gebeurtenissen:
Februari - De belegerende troepen voor Antwerpen sluiten met tientallen schepen de
Schelde af, waardoor bevoorrading van de stad onmogelijk wordt.
23 Juni - Slag bij Amerongen. Door verraad van de Graven van Bergen worden de Staatse
troepen onder aanvoering van Villers, Graaf van Meurs (stadhouder van Utrecht), door de
Spaanse troepen onder bevel van Gouverneur Taxis van Zutphen, vernietigend verslagen.
29 Juli - De Friese stadhouder Willem Lodewijk sticht te Franeker een universiteit, die in
feite een theologische hogeschool is.
27 Augustus - De Val van Antwerpen: Alexander Farnese, de Spaanse Hertog van Parma,
verovert het laatste zuidelijke bolwerk Antwerpen. Hij forceert hiermee een definitieve
scheiding van de Noordelijke en Zuidelijke Nederlanden. Na de val verlaten 60.000 van
de 100.000 inwoners de stad.
15 Oktober - Na het Beleg van IJsseloord moet Francisco Verdugo capituleren aan de
Staatse belegeraars.
1 November - Maurits wordt stadhouder van Holland en Zeeland.
December - Als reactie op de Spaanse opmars stuurt Elizabeth I van Engeland de graaf van
Leicester in het geheim met 5000 man de Noordzee over.
Zonder datum:
Voor het eerst wordt op commerciële basis chocola naar Europa vervoerd, met een schip
van Vera Cruz naar Sevilla.
De Engelsen vestigen een kolonie op het eiland Roanoke (North Carolina).
Plantijn verlaat Leiden en vestigt zich opnieuw in Antwerpen
Nijmegen valt in Spaanse handen.

Geboren:
16 Maart - Gerbrand Adriaensz. Bredero, Nederlands schrijver (overleden 1618)
5 September - Kardinaal de Richelieu, Frans staatsman (overleden 1642)
4 Oktober - Anna, keizerin van het Heilige Roomse Rijk (overleden 1618)
9 Oktober - Heinrich Schütz, componist (overleden 1672)
28 Oktober - Cornelius Jansenius, Nederlands priester en theoloog (overleden 1638)
Exacte datum onbekend:
Hendrick Danielsz Slatius, Nederlands remonstrants predikant en medepleger van een
aanslag op prins Maurits (overleden 1623)
Hamnet en Judith Shakespeare, zoon en dochter (tweeling) van William Shakespeare.
Thijsje Pauwelsdr.

Overleden:
4 April - Caspar de Robles(57), Spaans stadhouder van Friesland en Groningen.
10 April - Paus Gregorius XIII (83), paus van 1572 tot 1585
23 November - Thomas Tallis (~80), Engelse componist en organist


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1585
See: Wikipedia.
Events:
January 12 - The Netherlands adopts the Gregorian calendar.
February - The Spanish seize Brussels.
April 24 - Pope Sixtus V succeeds Pope Gregory XIII as the 227th pope.
July 7 - The Treaty of Nemours forces King Henry III of France to capitulate to the
demands of the Catholic League.
August 8 - John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in his quest for the Northwest Passage.
August 17 - Antwerp is captured by Spanish forces under the Prince of Parma, who orders
Protestants to leave the city. As a result, over half of the 100.000 inhabitants flee to the
northern provinces. Furthermore, upon hearing of the capture of Antwerp, a relief fleet send
to raise the siege instead blockades the Schelde, preventing any and all ships from reaching
Antwerp for two centuries. This effectively destroys Antwerps position as important trade
city and de-facto capitol of the Dutch provinces. Its position is taken over by various
northern cities, most prominently Amsterdam.
August 17 - A first group of colonists under the charge of Ralph Lane lands in the New
World to create Roanoke Colony. This group will depart the following June.
August 20 - The Treaty of Nonsuch is signed, committing England to support the Dutch
Revolt.
Undated:
The Eighth War of Religion (also known as the War of the Three Henrys) begins in France.
Chocolate is introduced to Europe commercially.
England enters the Eighty Years' War.
Sir Walter Raleigh sends an expedition to establish a colony on Roanoke Island, off the
coast of North Carolina. The settlers face many problems, and soon abandon the colony.

Births:
January 27 - Hendrick Avercamp, Dutch painter (d. 1634)
March 5 - John George I, Elector of Saxony (d. 1656)
March 16 - Gerbrand Adriaensz Bredero, Dutch writer (d. 1618)
March 22 - Krzysztof Radziwi??, Polish nobleman (d. 1640)
June 11 - Evert Horn, Swedish soldier (d. 1615)
August 11 - Hamnet Shakespeare, Son of William Shakespeare
September 9 - Armand Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, French statesman (d. 1642)
October - John Ball, English puritan divine (d. 1640)
October 9 - Heinrich Schütz, German composer (d. 1672)
October 15 - Louis Cappel, French Protestant churchman and scholar (d. 1658)
October 28 - Cornelius Jansen, French bishop of Ypres and religious reformer (d. 1638)
November 1 - Jan Broz.ek, Polish mathematician, physician, and astronomer (d. 1652)
December 4 - John Cotton, founder of Boston, Massachusetts (d. 1652)
December 13 - William Drummond of Hawthornden, Scottish poet (d. 1649)
Date unknown:
Zachary Boyd, Scottish religious writer (d. 1653)
Ambrose Barlow, Catholic priest and martyr (d. 1641)
Thomas Preston, 1st Viscount Tara, Irish soldier (d. 1655)
Lucilio Vanini, Italian free-thinker (d. 1619)
Alexander Whitaker, Virginia Colony religious leader (d. 1616)
Probable:
Uriel da Costa, Portuguese Jewish philosopher (d. 1640)
Gonzalo de Céspedes y Meneses, Spanish novelist (d. 1638)
Francesco Fontana, Italian lawyer and astronomer (d. 1656)
Jacob Le Maire, Dutch mariner (d. 1616)
Thijsje Pauwelsdr.

Deaths:
January 16 - Edward Fiennes Clinton, English admiral (b. 1512)
February 6 - Edmund Plowden, English legal scholar (b. 1518)
February 13 - Alfonso Salmeron, Spanish Jesuit biblical scholar (b. 1515)
March 10 - Rembert Dodoens, Flemish physician and botanist (b. 1517)
April 3 - Thomas Goldwell, English ecclesiastic
April 10 - Pope Gregory XIII (b. 1502)
May 15 - Niwa Nagahide, Japanese warlord (b. 1535)
June 4 - Muretus, French humanist (b. 1526)
June 21 - Henry Percy, 8th Earl of Northumberland (b. 1532)
July 6 - Thomas Aufield, English Catholic martyr (b. 1552)
July 28 - Francis Russell, 2nd Earl of Bedford (b. 1527)
August 5 - Yermak Timofeyevich, Cossack leader and explorer of Siberia
November 23 - Thomas Tallis, English composer (b. c. 1510)
November 28 - Hernando Franco, Spanish composer (b. 1532)
December - Pierre de Ronsard, French poet (b. 1524)
December 4 - John Willock, Scottish reformer (b. c. 1515)
December 22 - Vittoria Accoramboni, Italian noblewoman (b. 1557)
Date unknown:
Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf, Turkish scientist (b. 1526)
Stanis?aw Lubomirski (XVI-1585), Polish nobleman


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1585

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